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#1 Andy

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Posted 23 June 2008 - 02:13 PM

NORTHUMBRIA

Much is made in the Anglo Saxon chronicles of the southern Anglo Saxons and their gradual dominance of southern Briton, but little is known about the early settlement of the Anglo Saxon kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira which would be the starting point for building of Anglian Northumbria.
Why would the early Anglo Saxon’s have settled in southern Briton when their supposed purpose was to defend Briton from northern Picts and Scot’s raids? It seems a long way to have to travel in order to protect your borders. Hengest and Horsa would have been hard pressed to find a more distant British area to settle than Thanet and Kent.
The Anglo Saxon chronicles claim that in 443 after requesting aide from Rome that was not to arrive they then requested aide from the Angles.
Looking at the placement of the various Anglo Saxon peoples it is clear that the Angles those who were requested to aide the Britons in 443 are the main settlers in northern Briton.
So as Hengest and Horsa were landing in Kent it is likely that the Angles were landing or already settled in the northern Briton realms near Hadrian’s Wall. It was here that they would be best placed to defend the wall.
The story of Anglian dominance of Northern Briton doesn’t begin until well after the year 500.
Could this be because the Angles were too busy fighting the raiders to begin their fight for land unlike their southern neighbours who upon settling in Briton were able to start their expansion almost immediately?


1. BERNICIA & DEIRA

The British realm of Bryneich from the Brytonnic word Bernicca meaning ‘land of mountain passes’ was the birth place of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia. Hadrian’s Wall passed through Bryneich so placement of Angle/Engle warriors in this area made good sense.
Deira was also a Brytonic realm from the word Deifr meaning ‘waters’ and pronounced Deywr. Here it would be that other Angles settled, near enough to Hadrian’s Wall to be able to defend it from northern raiding parties.
Archeologically evidence suggests Deira to be the older of the two settlements and the number of Anglian graves shows it was also more densely inhabited.
Bede says that the great-great-great grandfather of Aelle (the first known Deiran king) was ... Soemil, who first separated Deira from Bryneich. Therefore, Deira became independent of British control around the middle of the 5th century.


547 Ida is the first recorded Anglian king of BERNICIA. He captures Bryneich’s capital Din Guarda strengthens the defences by building a wall and renames it BAMBROUGH. Bede claims that Ida fought against the Brittonic king called Dutigern.

559 Glappa son of Ida becomes second king of Bernicia
560 Adda son of Ida becomes the third king of Bernicia

560 Aella becomes the first Anglian king of DEIRA.

568 Aethelric son of Ida succeeds to kingdom of Bernicia.
Acha the daughter of King Aella of Deira marries Aethelfrith the son of king Aethelric of Bernicia.

572 Theodric son of Ida succeeds to the kingdom of Bernicia

At this time Urien ap Cynfarch King of the Brytonic realm of Rheged (situated to the west of Bernicia and Deira) is growing in power and would soon become the Angles most powerful enemy. Threatened by the Anglian kingdoms expansion he forms a Brytonic alliance with other northern kings Morcant Bulc of Bryneich, Rhydderch Hael (the generous) of Alt Clut (Dumbarton rock area) and Gwallawc Marchawc Trin (the battle horseman) the king of Elmet. They have several successful battles with the Bernicians and soon pose a threat to Anglian expansion.

575 Battle of Gwen Ystrad Leeming lane in which Theodric faces the Britonic northern alliance led by Urien. Theodric is slain by Owein son of Urien.

579 Frithuwald son of Ida succeeds to kingdom of Bernicia

580 The army of Kings Peredyr and Gwrgi of Ebrauc march north to fight the Anglians of Bernicia. Both are killed by King Adda's forces at Caer Greu. It is highly unlikely that King Adda of Bernicia defeated these Britonic kings as he had died or been killed in 560. it is more likely that King Aelle of Deira is the actual opponent. The realm of Ebrauc was around York and any uprising in Ebrauc would have been seen as an immediate threat to the Deirians. The Deirans rise up, under King Aelle, and move on the City of Ebrauc. King Peredyr's son is forced to flee the Kingdom.

585 Hussa possibly the grandson of Ida succeeds to the Kingdom of Bernicia

588 Aella king of Deira dies and an Aethelric succeeds to the kingdom (as Aethelric of Bernicia is already dead this Aethelric may be a bother or son of Aella).

590 Urien ap Cynfarch and his allies have pushed the Bernician’s under Hussa back to the coast. For three days they are besieged on Ynys Metcaut (Lindisfarne) while Irish allies under King Fiachna of Ulster retake Bambrough. The Bernicians are saved from defeat by Morcant Bulc King of what remains of Bryneich who sends an assassin called Llofan Llaf Difo (severing hand) to kill Urien. At his death the northern allience falls apart and the Bernicians are able to regroup while the various British groups turn on each other.

593 Aethfrith son of Aethelric succeeded to the throne of Bernicia.

600 Kings Mynyddog Mwynfawr of Din-Eidyn & Cynan of Gododdin ride south to fight King Aethelfrith's Bernician army against enormous odds at the Battle of Catterick. The Britons are victorious.

603 Aeden king of the Scots fearing the expansion of the Bernician territory fought with the Dalreathinas and with Aethelfrith at THEAKSTONE and he lost most of his army.
BEDE wrote….Because Aethelfrith ravaged the Britons more than any other English king Aeden of the Scots came against him with a mighty army but was beaten by an inferior force. Most of Aedens army were slain at a place called DEGSASTAN (Dawston?). From this time to today (Bede’s time) no Scots have ever dared make war on the English again. The chronicles also state that Herring son of Hussa …led the enemy thither…had he joined with the Britons in an attempt to take the throne, the Britons may have seen Herring as a lesser of the two evil.

604 Aethelfrith invades Deira and kills King Athelric he marries King Aelle's daughter, Acha, and succeeds to the throne of Deira. Aelle’s son Edwin flees to the Court of King Iago of Gwynedd (in northern Wales). The idea of a single Northumbrian realm begins to take shape and Aethelfrith can be considered the first king of Northumbria.

607 King Aethelfrith of Bernicia invades Gwynedd in order to route out Edwin of Deira. A united British force led by Brocmail (Gwynedd, Powys, Pengwern and Dumnonian warriors) clashes with his army at the Battle of Chester. King Iago of Gwynedd and King Selyf Sarffgadau of Powys are both killed. Brocmail and the survivors flee.

613 The Battle of Bangor-is-Coed. King Bledric of Dumnonia is killed in the fighting and 1000 monks are massacred by the Northumbrians. King Edwin of Deira flees to the Court of King Raedwald of East Anglia.
In this year Aethelfrith subdues the kingdom of South Rheged.

615 King Aethelfrith visits King Raedwald of East Anglia at Rendlesham and persuades him to hand over his enemy, Edwin of Deira. In return, Raedwald is promised rich rewards, yet Aethelfrith threatens him with war if he fails to comply.
Raedwald's wife however, reminds him of his obligations as Edwin's protector and the King begrudgingly declines the offer. Edwin marries Princess Cwenburga, daughter of King Ceorl of Mercia.

617 Edwin of Deira, with the help of King Raedwald of East Anglia, conquers Northumbria. At the Battle of the River Idle King Aethelfrith and Raedwald's son Raegenhere are killed in the fighting.
Edwin drove out the sons of Aethelfrith.

617 Edwin conquers much of North Rheged. He also conquers Ynys Manau The Isle of man, and Elmet killing King Ceretic in the process.

620 King Edwin retakes South Rheged, and expels King Llywarch Hen who flees to Powys. Edwin's armies also move north into Southern Strathclyde and Gododdin.

626 Eumer is sent by Cuichelm king of Wessex to assassinate king Edwin. But Lilla (Edwin’s thane) and Forthere? protect their king. Lilla and Forthere are slain in the attack and Edwin is wounded. On that same night Edwin’s wife had a daughter whom they called Eanfled.
BEDE wrote that Eumer had a two edge dagger dipped in poison to the end. He went on the first day of easter to a city on the river Derwent (the ruined castle near the village of Alby). Where he was admitted to the king as a messenger. While delivering his message Eumer suddenly pulls the dagger out from under his garment and attacks King Edwin. As Eumer delivers his strike at King Edwin the thane/minister Lilla having no buckler/shield placed himself in front of the king and takes the killing strike. The blade passes through Lilla and wounds the king. At this the kings soldiers attacked Eumer who in the fight managed to kill Forthere one of the soldiers.

Edwin discovers Cwichelm's treachery and marches on Wessex. Prince Cwichelm and his father, King Cynegils of Wessex, march north to meet the Northumbrians at the Battle of Win Hill & Lose Hill, possibly with the aid of King Penda of Mercia. Despite their army's superior numbers, the Wessex duo are defeated and flee south.
The rivalry between King Edwin of Deira and King Cadwallon of Gwynedd, which has grown since childhood, reaches a climax. Edwin invades the Isle of Man and then Anglesey. Cadwallon is defeated in battle and is besieged on Puffin Island. He eventually flees to Brittany

630 King Penda of Mercia besieges Exeter (possibly held by King Clemen of Dumnonia). King Cadwallon of Gwynedd lands nearby, from his Deiran imposed exile in Brittany. He negotiates an alliance with King Penda of Mercia and a united British and Saxon force moves north to re-take Gwynedd.


633 King Edwin and his son Osfrith are slain by Cadwallan and Penda at HEATHFIELD (Hatfield chase) near Doncaster on 14th of October. Cadwallan and Penda went on to ravage the lands of Northumbria. The death of Edwin sees the kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia split again.

Osric son of Elfric (King Edwin’s uncle) succeeded to throne of DEIRA in Northumbria and Eanfrith the exiled son of Aethelfrith returns from Pictland and succeeded to the throne of Bernicia.

634 King Cadwallon of Gwynedd slays both Kings Eanfrith of Bernicia and Osric of Deira rather than negotiate peace with them. Eanfrith's half-brother, Oswald succeeds to the kingdom of Bernicia. He gathers a force possibly a mixture of Picts, Scots and Bernicians and clashes with King Cadwallon of Gwynedd at the Battle of Heavenfield on the high ground north of Hexham.
Here they were well situated to meet Cadwallan and the Welsh, who were advancing up the old Roman road called Dere Street. Oswald prepared for the conflict by placing a cross in the centre of the battle field and led his men into prayer for victory. When the Welsh arrived in the north they were were heavily exhausted from their long journey while the Northumbrians were alert and ready for the fight. Oswald's men chased the defeated Welsh south, and their King, Cadwallon was slain on the banks of the Rowley Burn, near the valley of a stream called the Devil's Water.

638 King Oswald and his Northumbrian army besiege and conquer Edinburgh. His half-brother, Prince Oswiu of Bernicia, marries Princess Rhiainfelt of North Rheged. Northumbria embraces North Rheged in a peaceful takeover. This would be the furthest north that Northumbria would stretch.

641 Prince Oswiu conquers the Britonnic kingdom of Gododdin.

642 King Oswald is slain by King Penda at MASERFELD on the 5th of August. The Britons led by King Penda of Mercia includes the army of Kings Cadafael Cadomedd of Gwynedd, Eluan of Powys and Cynddylan of Pengwern. Oswald is killed at the Battle of Oswestry, Oswald's body was cut into pieces, and his head and arms mounted on poles; the parts were retrieved in the next year by his brother and successor, Oswiu. The Mercian’s led by King Penda become dominant in Midland Britain.

655 The Battle of Winwaed on 15th of November. King Penda, marched with a force "thirty legions strong". King Oswiu was besieged by them at a place called Iudeu Stirling in the north of his kingdom. Oswiu offerd a great deal of treasure to Penda in exchange for peace. Nennius states that King Penda distributed it among his British allies. The recorded events may be interpreted to mean that Penda and his army then began marching home, but for some reason the two armies met and fought at a place called the River Winwaed. A tributory of the river Went north of Doncaster. It is almost certain that the Northumbrians were considerably outnumbered by the Mercians and their allies.
According to the Nennius in the Historia Brittonum, Penda's ally Cadafael ap Gwynedd (thereafter remembered as ‘Cadomedd’ (battle-shirker) abandoned him, along with his army. Penda was soundly defeated, and both he and the East Anglian King Aethelhere were killed. Bede mentions that Penda's head was cut off which was possibly because of his treatment of King Oswald

670 King Oswiu dies on the 15th of February. His son Ecgfrith succeeds him.

679 King Ecgfrith fights with King Aethelred of Mercia near the Trent his brother Aelfwine is killed and a deal is made whereby Mercia gain the kingdom of Lindsey.

685 King Ecgfrith leads an army against the Picts. At the Battle of Nechtansmere, near Forfar, King Ecgfrith and much of his army is slain. His brother Aeldfrith succeeds him.

From the early 700s Northumbria is torn by the infighting of several families and individuals which constantly contest for the throne. MUCH confusion and conflicting information exists.

ALL SUGGESTIONS AND CORRECTIONS ARE WANTED

704 Aeldfrith dies 14th Dec at Driffield and his son Osred succeeds him.
716 King Osred is slain on his southern border and Coenred succeeds him.
718 Osric brother of Osred succeeds to the kingdom of Northumbria
729 Coelwulf succeeds to the kingdom of Northumbria after Osric is slain.
737 King Eathelbald of Mercia ravages Northumbria.
738 Eadberht succeeds to the Kingdom of Northumbria when his cousin Coelwulf enters monastic life at Lindisfarne.
740 Eadberht faces a rival to his throne Eardwine, and Eardwine is slain whether in battle or assassin is unknown. Mention is made of a war between the Picts and the Northumbrians in this year could Eardwine have been with the Pictish army? While this war was occurring Aethelbard King of Mercia ravages Northumbrian lands.
750 Offa son of Alfrith challenges for the kingdom but after a siege of Lindisfarne. Offa is defeated, taken and slain.
758 Eadberht retires to monastic life at York his son Oswulf inherits the kingdom
759 King Oswulf is slain by his servant at Market Weighton on July 24th
Aethelwald Moll takes the kingdom (did he have Oswulf murdered?)
761 Oswine brother of Oswulf meets Aethelwald Moll in battle at Edwin’s cliff but is slain.
765 A Witanagemot removes Athelwald Moll from the throne and replaces him with Alhred.
774 The people reject Alhred and Aethelred son of Aethelwald Moll succeeds to the Kingdom but in 779 is deposed and goes into exile.
779 Aelfwald succeeds to the kingdom.
780 Ealdorman Oswald has Bearn son of Aelfwald burnt to death at Silton.
789 King Aelfwald is murdered September 23rd by the ealdorman Sicga at Chester’s, a fort on Hadrian’s Wall.
789 Osred (second Osred) succeeds to the kingdom
790 King Osreds rule is short after a single year he is deposed and replaced by the once deposed Aethelred son of Aethelwald Moll
792 Osred returns from exile but is slain on September 18th.
793 Early in the year Northumbria suffers a famine and evil omens are seen in the sky. By the end of the year Vikings attack the church on Holy island.
794 King Aethelred slain by ealdormen Ealdred and Wada, the throne is taken by ealdorman Osbald, who is considered a brutal and violent man. He holds power for less than a month before the people turn on him and he flees to Lindisfarne where he lives in exile before sailing to Pictland.
A Viking raid occurs at the monastery at the mouth of the river Wear, however bad weather causes the ships to smash or capsize killing many of the raiders. Those that make it to shore are killed by the people.

795 Ealdorman Eardwulf succeeds to the kingdom he meets Ealdorman Wada in Battle at Billington moor and wins the day. Wada flees into exile.
798 Battle of Whalley in Northumbria, Alric son of Ealdorman Herbert is slain.
806 King Eardwulf is banished.
808 Eardwulf is restored to the kingdom
810 Eanred
827 King Ecgbert of the West Saxons invaded Northumbria as far as Dore, here he received the submission of the Northumbrians and then returned home.
841 Aethelred (son of Eanred)
844 Raedwulf
844 Aethelred retakes the kingdom
848 Osbeorht
863 Aelle deposes king Osbeorht and takes the throne.
867 This year the Danish army led by Ragnar Lothbok went from the East-Angles over the mouth of the Humber to the Northumbrians. King Aelle and the recently deposed Osbeorht join together against a common enemy, the Danes. Together they collect a vast army and fight the Danes at York. The Danes held York. The Northumbrians fight their way into the town but the Danes make an immense slaughter of the Northumbrians, both the kings were slain.


To be continued


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#2 Rob A

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Posted 26 June 2008 - 08:31 AM

There is too much here for me to take in at once, and anyway I'm not going to disagree with the AS chronicle without good reason.
When I get round to Bede I will see what he says-writing in Northumbria and earlier than the Chronicles he is the only other source that I know of which I would trust.
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#3 Andy

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Posted 26 June 2008 - 06:22 PM

Sorry i will try to keep the posts shorter.

I must admit i enjoyed the northumbrian history better then Kent or Wessex partly because they include Britons. It shows how they fought together against common enamies both Britons and Anglo Saxon.

I still believe that the evidence shows that the Angle or Engle came to Briton to work with the Britons in defence of their lands. And, that the southern Saxons were here purely for invasion.
The pattern of Saxon history is too similer to the Danish invasion.


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#4 Rob A

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Posted 27 June 2008 - 08:48 AM

Sorry Andy, that was in no way meant as a criticism ! I'm full of admiration for all the work you do , it's just my brain slowing down as I get older! No-one HAS to read it all at once. .shield .Keep it up while you've still got the energy.
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#5 Andy

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Posted 27 June 2008 - 05:14 PM

And I'M sorry if my reply read like I thought you had made a criticism, It NEVER crossed my mind......I must try to think before I reply.

I certainly dont expect anyone to read it all at once, and any time you take to check i havent errored or missed out important or not important information is very welcome. ALL criticism and corrections are welcome if it makes the post more factual.

Please dont worry about offending me (errr too much) as all our goals are the same
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#6 Andy

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Posted 27 June 2008 - 05:16 PM

Keep it up while you've still got the energy


Hey up...what you trying to say.......have you been talking to my wife????
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#7 Rob A

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Posted 28 June 2008 - 08:45 AM

.shield Cheers Andy :+: Now we've finished embarassing ourselves and each other !
I have looked into Bede for more info and find that he was the source the Chronicle compilers used for events pre-731 , so nothing new to be found there .
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#8 Andy

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Posted 30 June 2008 - 01:29 PM

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Yes though BEDE does put some meat of the bare bones of the ASC's. Eg I edited the assassination attempt by Eumer on Edwin. Bede tells the story of Eumer pretending to be a messenger and using a double blades dagger dipped in poisen......true/false, dont know but I will edit in any of Bedes/nennius etc as i find them until we have a complete'ish English history.
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#9 Rob A

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Posted 11 September 2008 - 08:28 AM

Andy has mentioned elsewhere the possibility of different Germanic peoples fighting each other , he's more knowledgeable than me(says Rob avoiding a difficult question :o )
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#10 Andy

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Posted 11 September 2008 - 10:07 AM

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the old writers claim the Anglo saxons came to defend the Britons agains raiders (and other potential invaders) The earliest Engle settled in Deria and Bernicia well placed to fight against invading Pict raiders and Dal riatian (Irish) raiders from across the sea.
The brothers? Hengest and Horsa were given the isle of Thanet to live while the sons of Hengest sailed up to the Orknies and northern Briton to take the fight to the north Britons own doorstep.

In these days tribe fought against raiders, fought against other tribes and many an Ætheling fought against Ætheling for the right to be king.
Conflict seems to be a way of life and the law of the jungle (strongest survived) ruled.

Engle would have fought Briton would have fought Jute and would have fought Saxon. Victory/survival was all important and aligning oneself with a Briton would have increased the odds of surviving, that isnt to say that next month they wouldnt have turned on their allies.
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#11 Rob A

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Posted 11 September 2008 - 12:55 PM

When you think of how the Englisc fought among themselves for centuries I should think it is basically impossible that the migration could have been a friendly long term co-operation between the various peoples. "Let's be friends until we get to Britain , then we can start fighting again" ? Not likely.
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#12 Andy

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Posted 11 September 2008 - 02:05 PM

These people were competing for land, to ensure the survival of their Engle, saxon, Jute, Briton etc tribe.

The Britons lost virtually every aspect of their identity in what became England. Place names family names language etc......

I read a snippet of a book that was tryiing to prove the elite Anglo Saxon nobles causing a change of culture on the indiginous people by using Wales as examples......Here they speak English...but the Anglo Saxons didnt take their lands like they did the area of Englland.

However Welsh placenames still exist, a sense of not being Germanic so why should the Welsh have been any different to Yorkshire or Wessx? If only a few elites changed Briton into England then why didnt Wales (and Scotland) follow suite?
What made these celtic nations different then the celtic Britons who became English?

The difference was that in Engle land we took over by force, we dominated and we imposed our culture.
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