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GERMANIC KINGDOMS IN BRITAIN FROM THE 400's AD to the UNIFICATION IN 937 AD UNDER ATHELSTAN


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#1 Teutoburg Weald

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Posted 04 December 2011 - 02:33 PM

Post-Roman Britain

The Island of Britain AD 450-600

This map of Britain concentrates on the British territories and kingdoms that were established during the fourth and fifth centuries, as the Saxons and Angles began their settlement of the east coast.


It provides an overview of all the territories known or estimated to have existed under Romano-British control, but not all of them existed at the same time, or in the same form as shown here. Many territories in the south-east appear to have been slow to assume any independent status, and were very short-lived, while others in the west had shifting borders and a sketchy history that suggests a gradual shift from Roman-style administration to Celtic kingdom.



At this stage modern England did not exist (the name derives from Engle-land, in use from no earlier than the mid-sixth century to describe the 'land of the Angles'), neither did Wales (a Saxon name which means 'foreigner' or 'stranger'). Scotland was either known as Caledonia (coined by the Romans), or Pictland after the name (again coined by the Romans) for the majority of its Celtic population. The Irish Scotti tribe, the Dal Riada, were only just beginning to migrate onto the western coast of Pictland, around Argyll.



Most of the kingdoms shown have some historical basis, but some, especially those in the south and east of what later became England, are less definite. Their borders remain mostly or entirely conjectural, and the existence of some of them is based on fragmentary evidence. The historical validity of each kingdom (where there is doubt) is mentioned in its king list text.





To select a territory for further information, click anywhere within its borders.

Posted Image


This is the beginning of a History of our Homeland from the four Hundred's AD to the Unification of the Englisc Kingdoms under our first true King 'Athelstan' first King of all the Englisc, and overlord of the Welsh, Scots and Danes...

HG

  • 2

10489833_664318090328376_188312911168407

 

æsctír here sum ándaga wulfséaþas brecðan scildweallas

 

Lo  þær drohtoþ ic lóc min fæder, Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc min módor, ond min gesweostor ond min gebródor. Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc séo lang of min Angelfolc. Lo hig drohtoþ gecégan æt mé ond bid mé bryidan min bæcern ámang  þæge rice wiusæl of valhalla bæcern þæt mðdhwæt magan búan widan.

 

E.L.A.M.O

 

 


#2 Teutoburg Weald

Teutoburg Weald

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Posted 04 December 2011 - 02:44 PM

Post-Roman Britain

The Anglo-Saxon Conquest AD 550-600


Sub-Roman Britannia underwent rapid change in the course of fifty years between AD 550-600.


At the start of this period, the Angle and Saxon kingdoms on the east and south coasts were firmly established. Many of the rapidly formed Romano-British territories in those areas had been swept away in the late fifth century. A few were managing to hold out, but they were becoming increasingly surrounded and squeezed by encroaching invaders.



One reason for the rapid downfall of the Romano-British was the disastrous custom of dividing territory between all surviving sons, instead of passing it on intact to the eldest. Another was the destructive habit of infighting, but for which the Anglo-Saxon advance, halted by the victory of Mons Badonicus, might never have been able to re-start.




This map presents the major events of this period. The Romano-British territories are shaded in blue, while the invaders are in green. Angle and Saxon advances are marked by green hatched lines over a blue territory, accompanied by the year in which the territory fell.



Faded borders are conjectural.




To select a kingdom, territory, or grouping for further information, click anywhere within its borders.


Posted Image


Andredes Leag


Later known as Andredsley, Andredes leag or weald was a large stretch of dense woodland which started in modern Kent in the region of the Limenware and extended across most of the northern border of Sussex. The wood was, from east to west, approximately 120 miles long, perhaps longer, and thirty miles deep.


In 477, Ælle and his Suth Seaxe landed on the southern coast and drove the British defenders into the woods which they associated with the nearby British fort of Andredes ceaster (British Anderita). This fort was defended by men who were possibly part of the proposed British kingdom of Rhegin.


In Ælle's time many of the Roman roads through the woods were still in good condition, and provided access to the Saxons of the Thames Valley, including the Suther-ge. But in time they were allowed to deteriorate, and Sussex became isolated.

Cantware

Suth Seaxe
Suther-ge
Thames Valley Saxons
Rhegin
A Short History of Canterbury

Boroware




This group of Cantware settled in or around the Roman territorium of Durovernum Cantiacum (Canterbury). The former cantonal capital became Cantwara burh, or 'fort of the men of Kent'.


Kingdom of the Cantware
A Short History of Canterbury


Ceasterware

At the point where Watling Street crossed the River Medway, Roman Durobrivae retained only the garbled second syllable of its name in Hrofesceaster (and eventually Rochester in Kent). The original name probably meant 'walled town with bridges' and its form did not change much for centuries. The Ceasterware were simply 'people of the fort'.


Kingdom of the Cantware
A Short History of Canterbury


Daenningas

The Daenningas settled between modern Colchester and the coast at Bradwell, and became part of the East Seaxe kingdom. The modern area of Dengie still bears their name, from the Saxon Deningei - the region of the Daenningas.


The first written reference to Deningei can be traced to an eighth century charter.


Kingdom of the East Seaxe

Dormsaete


The West Seaxe invaded the eastern half of Dumnonia in 614. It seems likely that it was around this period that independent Saxon groups were able to make inroads into the British kingdom's territory to found new settlements where Dumnonian defences and the inhospitable coastline had previously prevented coastal landings.



They named themselves from the local Romano-British name of Caer Durnac or Roman Durnovaria (modern Dorchester, from the Celtic tribe of the Durotriges). The Dormsatae were independent until circa 650-670.


Kingdom of the West Seaxe
Kingdom of Dumnonia


Eastorege


Modern Eastry near Sandwich in Kent was known as the Eastore-ge, the 'Eastern region' of the Cantware kingdom. Its name was first written down in a charter of 811 as regione Eastorege.


This is a map of our Homeland around the five hundred's AD onwards....
  • 2

10489833_664318090328376_188312911168407

 

æsctír here sum ándaga wulfséaþas brecðan scildweallas

 

Lo  þær drohtoþ ic lóc min fæder, Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc min módor, ond min gesweostor ond min gebródor. Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc séo lang of min Angelfolc. Lo hig drohtoþ gecégan æt mé ond bid mé bryidan min bæcern ámang  þæge rice wiusæl of valhalla bæcern þæt mðdhwæt magan búan widan.

 

E.L.A.M.O

 

 


#3 Teutoburg Weald

Teutoburg Weald

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Posted 04 December 2011 - 03:08 PM

Post-Roman Britain

The Anglo-Saxon Conquest AD 550-600


Sub-Roman Britannia underwent rapid change in the course of fifty years between AD 550-600.


At the start of this period, the Angle and Saxon kingdoms on the east and south coasts were firmly established. Many of the rapidly formed Romano-British territories in those areas had been swept away in the late fifth century. A few were managing to hold out, but they were becoming increasingly surrounded and squeezed by encroaching invaders.



One reason for the rapid downfall of the Romano-British was the disastrous custom of dividing territory between all surviving sons, instead of passing it on intact to the eldest. Another was the destructive habit of infighting, but for which the Anglo-Saxon advance, halted by the victory of Mons Badonicus, might never have been able to re-start.





This map presents the major events of this period. The Romano-British territories are shaded in blue, while the invaders are in green. Angle and Saxon advances are marked by green hatched lines over a blue territory, accompanied by the year in which the territory fell.




Faded borders are conjectural.





To select a kingdom, territory, or grouping for further information, click anywhere within its borders.


Posted Image





Andredes Leag


Later known as Andredsley, Andredes leag or weald was a large stretch of dense woodland which started in modern Kent in the region of the Limenware and extended across most of the northern border of Sussex. The wood was, from east to west, approximately 120 miles long, perhaps longer, and thirty miles deep.





In 477, Ælle and his Suth Seaxe landed on the southern coast and drove the British defenders into the woods which they associated with the nearby British fort of Andredes ceaster (British Anderita). This fort was defended by men who were possibly part of the proposed British kingdom of Rhegin.


In Ælle's time many of the Roman roads through the woods were still in good condition, and provided access to the Saxons of the Thames Valley, including the Suther-ge. But in time they were allowed to deteriorate, and Sussex became isolated.

Cantware



Suth Seaxe
Suther-ge
Thames Valley Saxons
Rhegin
A Short History of Canterbury

Boroware







This group of Cantware settled in or around the Roman territorium of Durovernum Cantiacum (Canterbury). The former cantonal capital became Cantwara burh, or 'fort of the men of Kent'.


Kingdom of the Cantware
A Short History of Canterbury





Ceasterware

At the point where Watling Street crossed the River Medway, Roman Durobrivae retained only the garbled second syllable of its name in Hrofesceaster (and eventually Rochester in Kent). The original name probably meant 'walled town with bridges' and its form did not change much for centuries. The Ceasterware were simply 'people of the fort'.


Kingdom of the Cantware
A Short History of Canterbury





Daenningas

The Daenningas settled between modern Colchester and the coast at Bradwell, and became part of the East Seaxe kingdom. The modern area of Dengie still bears their name, from the Saxon Deningei - the region of the Daenningas.


The first written reference to Deningei can be traced to an eighth century charter.


Kingdom of the East Seaxe




Dormsaete


The West Seaxe invaded the eastern half of Dumnonia in 614. It seems likely that it was around this period that independent Saxon groups were able to make inroads into the British kingdom's territory to found new settlements where Dumnonian defences and the inhospitable coastline had previously prevented coastal landings.



They named themselves from the local Romano-British name of Caer Durnac or Roman Durnovaria (modern Dorchester, from the Celtic tribe of the Durotriges). The Dormsatae were independent until circa 650-670.


Kingdom of the West Seaxe
Kingdom of Dumnonia





Eastorege


Modern Eastry near Sandwich in Kent was known as the Eastore-ge, the 'Eastern region' of the Cantware kingdom. Its name was first written down in a charter of 811 as regione Eastorege.


This is a map of our Homeland around the five hundred's AD onwards....







Elge



The island of Ely in Cambridgeshire was called Elig by the later Angles. The original term was Elge, 'an eel' (according to Bede). Alternatively, even though very few British names survived in the Midlands or East, the name might descend from the British Helyg, 'a willow', which tree, thanks to the marshy nature of the local soil, grew plentifully.




By the late fifth century Ely had become an island surrounded by undrained marsh, and the East Engle reached the area by AD 500, using the river routes to advance swiftly. For the next century the Cambridgeshire area was disputed territory between the East Engle and the Middil Engle, until the latter were pushed back.







Kingdom of the East Engle
Kingdom of the Middil Engle


Gegingas




Quickly subsumed within the East Seaxe kingdom, a large area south west of Chelmsford was known as Gigingas or Gegingas after the people who settled there. This included the syllable 'ing' meaning possession and is seen in the names of Ingatestone, Fryerning, Margaretting, Mountnessing and Ingrave.




It appears that the Normans later divided up the territory and Ingatestone and Fryerning were known collectively as Ging-at-the-stone. The Gegingas were positioned immediately to the east of the Rodingas on the other side of the Roman road which divided them.







Kingdom of the East Seaxe


Gywre




Neglect of the Roman engineering works and land subsidence after AD 450 in the area of Cambridge and Ely reduced drained fenland to marsh, isolating Ely and other islands. Within these areas lived a dark-haired, independent people, called the Gywre, who were possibly Celtic in origin.




During the seventh century, the East Engle king Sigeberht appointed Felix as the first bishop of the newly established bishopric of Ely. Sigeberht's successor was Annah. His daughter, Ethelreda, was influenced by Felix into pledging her virginity to Christ, but that didn't prevent her from making two political marriages. The first of these, most notably, was to Tonbert, chieftain of the Southern Gyrwe (the Northern Gyrwe were apparently located closer to The Wash), which brought her Ely as her inheritance, either as a dowry from her husband or by right of her birth as a Wuffinga of the Royal House. The second marriage was to the Northumbrian king Ecgfrith (670-685). In 672 Ethelreda fled from him when he demanded consummation of the marriage. She sought sanctuary on the Isle of Ely, establishing a double abbey of monks and nuns under her as abbess.




Clearly, the mysterious Gywre not only survived for at least two and a half centuries, but their leader was in a position to claim the hand of the daughter of the East Anglian king. Unfortunately, there seems to be no other mention of this tribe so presumably they eventually merged with the local Angles and later Danish settlers.





Kingdom of the East Engle
Kingdom of Northumbria


Hæstingas




The Hæstingas were a substantial band of people who settled in the area of modern Hastings (Hastingacaestre), the name revealing the existence of a castle or fort at that time. They were eventually subsumed by the Suth Seaxe. The settlement of Hastings itself was moved eastwards by the end of the Anglo-Saxon Period, which is where it stayed, barring a small relocation into what is now the Old Town Valley in 1069.







Kingdom of the Suth Seaxe


Herstingas




The tribe of the Herstingas formed part of the Middil Angle peoples and were situated northwest of Cambridge.







Middil Engle


Hwicce




The Hwicce emerged from obscurity, probably from within territory controlled by the West Seaxe, to form their own kingdom from 577. Initially they may have been under the dominance of the West Seaxe, but after their defeat of 584 the West Seaxe apparently drew back from the border area. The Hwicce may not have been very numerous, and there are indications that they became integrated into the existing British culture in the area.




The Magonset and Wrocenset (shown on the Anglo-Saxon step-through map for AD 650) were probably part of their grouping, although there is also the possibility that they had links to Mercia. Once British Pengwern had fallen in 656, they moved in to fill the gap in the west of the territory.





Kingdom of the Hwicce
Kingdom of the Magonset
Kingdom of Mercia
Kingdom of Pengwern
Kingdom of the West Seaxe


Limenware




The Limenware were a group of Cantware who settled near the Roman fort of Lemanis (now Lympne). They adopted the name to identify themselves at the territorial centre of what became the lithe (the early administrative centres of the kings of Kent) of the Limenware in the form of Lyminge, or Limin-ge, the region of the Limenware.




Other areas in Kent were organised in the same way, suggesting that the Cantware may have been perpetuating the governmental pattern of this part of Kent from late Roman times. It has also been suggested that these early lithes began as semi-independent settlements or petty kingdoms in their own right and were only slowly brought under the central control of the kingdom.





Kingdom of the Cantware
A Short History of Canterbury


Loidis




The name Loidis was applied to the district and not to a single place or settlement, and this is confirmed by two names, Ledsham and Ledston, which both contain the same element. These two villages are about ten miles from the city of Leeds. The name then became Leodis, then Ledes, when it was mentioned in Domesday Book in 1086, and then Leeds.




Leeds may have been the centre of a Roman settlement, although there is no definite evidence for this. Some sources suggest that British Loidis was a kingdom in its own right, but it seems much more likely that it was a subdivision of Elmet. It was noted as Elmete (Loidis regio), which also suggests that the kingdom of Elmet was to be found in the Leeds region. Originally, Loidis may have been the name of a tribe and could mean 'people of the flowing river' - an early reference to the River Aire on which Leeds is situated.




An eleventh century manuscript claimed that in the tenth century, Loidis lay on the boundary between the Viking kingdom of Jorvik and the British Kingdom of Strathclyde (which included Lancashire, Cumbria and south western Scotland). A saint called Cadroe is said to have visited both Strathclyde and Jorvik in the tenth century receiving the hospitality of the kings of these two regions. The two kings are said to have met at Loidis during Cadroe's passage from one kingdom to the other.





Kingdom of Elmet
Kingdom of Alt Clut
The Scandinavian Kingdom of York
The Ancient Kingdom of Elmet


Meonware




The Meonware were a colony of Jutes who came round Southampton Water and up the Solent to settle there in circa 450. It is not clear precisely when they were conquered by the West Seaxe, but they retained their identity for at least two centuries.







Meonware
Kingdom of the West Seaxe


North Engle




The North Engle were part of the Middil Engle peoples. They were located in modern Nottinghamshire (Nottingham is a preservation of the North Engle name), and in circa 600 they were conquered by the Iclingas.







Kingdom of Mercia


Pecset




Prior to their movement into the Peak District and the adoption of this name to reflect their new settlement in circa 590, this group of Saxons were part of the Middil Engle peoples, and were probably located close to modern Nottinghamshire. No doubt they ventured over the border into the surrounding British territories from time to time.




This is a Continuation of the above article..
  • 2

10489833_664318090328376_188312911168407

 

æsctír here sum ándaga wulfséaþas brecðan scildweallas

 

Lo  þær drohtoþ ic lóc min fæder, Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc min módor, ond min gesweostor ond min gebródor. Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc séo lang of min Angelfolc. Lo hig drohtoþ gecégan æt mé ond bid mé bryidan min bæcern ámang  þæge rice wiusæl of valhalla bæcern þæt mðdhwæt magan búan widan.

 

E.L.A.M.O

 

 


#4 Teutoburg Weald

Teutoburg Weald

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Posted 04 December 2011 - 03:14 PM

Rodingas


Amongst the East Seaxe peoples could be found the Rodingas, based on the modern group of Roding villages in Essex, and positioned immediately west of theGegingas.



Their settlements covered an area of about twenty miles across in the heart of Essex, northwest of modern Chelmsford, and were therefore more likely to have derived from a Saxon than an Angle background on the Continent.



JNL Myres, "The English Settlements," points out that the Essex Rodingas may have taken their name from the Rodingas who appear as a continental tribe in Widsith, descended perhaps ultimately from the Reudingi of Tacitus.







Kingdom of East Seaxe

Somersaete



The Saxon conquest and occupation of Somerset was a long slow process which began with the battle of Dyrham in 577, when the West Seaxe (West Saxons) defeated the Britons of Caer Baddan et al.



This victory brought the West Saxons to Bath, and perhaps further groups of Saxons across the river Avon into the northern parts of Somerset where, seemingly independent, they became the Somersaete. After nearly a century, the West Seaxe advanced after victories at Bradford-on-Avon in 652 and in 658 at Penselwood, the densely forested area on the eastern boundary of Somerset.



These victories opened the way into Somerset through the forests and marshes to the river Parrett. In 682 the West Seaxe cleared the western coastal area of Somerset as far as the Devon border. The final stage in securing the conquest of Somerset was carried out by Ine, and was completed with the victory over Geraint in 710.





Caer Baddan
Kingdom of the West Seaxe

Spaldingas



The first written record concerning Spalding was a Charter issued in AD 716 by King Aethelbald of Mercia to the Monks of Crowland Abbey. Another charter written in 868 referred to Spaldelying.



The Spaldingas settled in the fens and marshes of East Anglia. The core of their territory was located at the point where a road ran over the low country to the Wash. "Yng" is a Celtic word for fen or low meadowland; today, the fens are still known as "ungs." The district name is related either to Old English spâld "spittle" or to an OE *spald cognate with Old High German spalt "a ditch, a trench", either perhaps referring to a Roman drainage canal, of which the area had many.



In Domesday Book, prepared for William the Conqueror after 1066, Spalding is spelled "Spallinge." In Latin, Spall or Spald means "the shoulder." The town of Spalding of Saxon derivation means literally: "the tribe who live at the shoulder" (marsh or swamp dwellers).





Kingdom of the East Engle

Suth Engle



Part of the Middil Engle peoples, the South Engle were situated in modern Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, where they had greatly compressed the northern border of the British kingdom of Cynwidion. They were conquered by the Iclingas in around AD 600.







Cynwidion
Kingdom of the Middil Engle
Kingdom of the Mercians

Undalum



Forming part of the Middil Engle (Middle Angle) peoples, the tribe of the Undalum or Undele were situated between Kettering and Great Casterton. Their name survives in the town of Oundle in Northamptonshire.







Kingdom of the Middil Engle

Wiltsaete



The Wiltsaete (Wiltshire Saxons) were slowly conquered by the West Seaxe between circa 495 and 560. Their settlements lay on the western border of the British territories of Caer Celemion and Caer Gwinntguic.



Not shown on this map because they didn't begin to advance into eastern Dumnonia until the seventh century are the Somersaete and the Dormsaete. TheHwicce also apparently emerged from Wiltshire after 577.


Caer Gwinntguic
Kingdom of the West Seaxe

Ytene



Ytene, where the letter 'Y' is pronounced as a 'U' is the same as 'Jutes'. The Jutes living in Hampshire were part of the original kingdom of the West Seaxe which was taken over by Cerdic's Gewissae from 495.



It is generally accepted (even if it cannot be categorically proven) that the Jutes can be identified with the continental Eotens, which locates their original home in Jutland, close to the Danes who were migrating south from Scandinavia in the fourth and fifth centuries. In old Norse, Jotar is the name given to the Danes of Jutland, and they generally adopted local names for themselves, so the name must have existed when they arrived.



Although the bulk of the Jutes who arrived in Britannia may have been governed by Angles, some Jutes may have mingled with the Saxons in their continental expeditions and settlements because the Frankish king of Austrasia, Theudibert I (534-538), when writing to Justinian, mentions that he had Jutes (Eucii) in his kingdom.


Kingdom of the West Seaxe
Kingdom of Austrasia

  • 2

10489833_664318090328376_188312911168407

 

æsctír here sum ándaga wulfséaþas brecðan scildweallas

 

Lo  þær drohtoþ ic lóc min fæder, Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc min módor, ond min gesweostor ond min gebródor. Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc séo lang of min Angelfolc. Lo hig drohtoþ gecégan æt mé ond bid mé bryidan min bæcern ámang  þæge rice wiusæl of valhalla bæcern þæt mðdhwæt magan búan widan.

 

E.L.A.M.O

 

 


#5 Teutoburg Weald

Teutoburg Weald

    Until Valhalla & my Kindred call!

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Posted 04 December 2011 - 03:22 PM

Posted Image


The Roman administration of Britannia officially came to an end in AD 410, although in practise the Romano-British had governed themselves for some time.

The reorganisations of Magnus Maximus, in the 380s, which had secured Britannia's western and northern borders, had begun to break down. Northern Britain was fragmenting as it was divided piecemeal between surviving sons. Its final division seems to have come in circa 470 with Ebrauc losing its western arm, the Pennines.

Likewise, Powys was divided in two following the civil war between Vortigern and Ambrosius Aurelianus. Middle Britain, in the more highly civilised heartland of sub-Roman Britain, was apparently also in the process of a slower break-up.

Along the Saxon Shore, former laetisettlements and waves of new arrivals were asserting their independence. Hengist and Horsa led the swift conquest of eastern Ceint, while Saxon groups pushed deep into the Thames Valley, and Angles invaded Caer Went and Linnius. Only Bernaccia and Deywr seemed to have peaceful Angles on their coastlines.

Posted Image



Twenty five years after the start of the Anglo-Saxon Conquest, the North remained untouched and still relatively powerful. Angles hired as mercenaries(laeti) continued to help defend the eastern coastline.
The Lindisware (Linnius) Angles appear to have managed a peaceful transition of power. They took on many aspects of sub-Roman administration and lived isolated from the action in the south.
Although the country was in a state of flux, this was the time of Ambrosius Aurelianus, and Arthur too. Together, or in sequence, they organised the much-needed defence of the south: groups of Angles were rapidly colonising Caer Went and penetrating Caer Lerion; the Cantware Jutes conquered Kent by 488; Ælle's Saxons made swift progress on the south coast; and more Saxons had made deep inroads along the Thames Valley, carving out settlements there and threatening the entire West Country. Cynwidion quickly lost its western border to the Ciltern Saetan, while the territory of Lundein was swiftly occupied by the Middel Seaxe on either side of the Thames. Defence came in the form of the battle, or siege, of Mons Badonicus incirca 496.
Posted Image


More than any other battle or siege, Mons Badonicus had a massive effect on the conquest. Probably led by Ælle, who was the recognised overlord of the invaders, the Saxons of the south had suffered a crushing defeat which seems to have critically weakened the Suth Seaxe, Middel Seaxe, Thames Valley Saxons, and perhaps even the Cantware.
A period of peace which lasted for over a generation followed the British victory. However, Cerdic and his supporters made a grab for power over the West Seaxe in 495-519. In addition, the Angles in the east continued to pour into the Midlands, quickly engulfing Caer Lerion and apparently forcing a passage through Cynwidion's western territory to link up with the Ciltern Saetan, probably shortly before Mons Badonicus. Caer Mincip, a small British enclave, survived on the edge of the (probably weakened) Middel Seaxe kingdom.
By the end of this period the peace was fading, and the first move seems to have been made by the Bernician Angles (British Bernaccia) in 547, situated North of the Humber. Nearby Rheged and The Pennines further sub-divided, while in the south Caer Colun came under attack.

Here you will see, the gradual conquest of what will become England, in a step by step description via Map.
  • 2

10489833_664318090328376_188312911168407

 

æsctír here sum ándaga wulfséaþas brecðan scildweallas

 

Lo  þær drohtoþ ic lóc min fæder, Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc min módor, ond min gesweostor ond min gebródor. Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc séo lang of min Angelfolc. Lo hig drohtoþ gecégan æt mé ond bid mé bryidan min bæcern ámang  þæge rice wiusæl of valhalla bæcern þæt mðdhwæt magan búan widan.

 

E.L.A.M.O

 

 


#6 Teutoburg Weald

Teutoburg Weald

    Until Valhalla & my Kindred call!

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Posted 04 December 2011 - 03:28 PM

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The Roman administration of Britannia officially came to an end in AD 410, although in practise the Romano-British had governed themselves for some time.
The reorganisations of Magnus Maximus, in the 380s, which had secured Britannia's western and northern borders, had begun to break down. Northern Britain was fragmenting as it was divided piecemeal between surviving sons. Its final division seems to have come in circa 470 with Ebrauc losing its western arm, the Pennines.
Likewise, Powys was divided in two following the civil war between Vortigern and Ambrosius Aurelianus. Middle Britain, in the more highly civilised heartland of sub-Roman Britain, was apparently also in the process of a slower break-up.
Along the Saxon Shore, former laetisettlements and waves of new arrivals were asserting their independence. Hengist and Horsa led the swift conquest of eastern Ceint, while Saxon groups pushed deep into the Thames Valley, and Angles invaded Caer Went and Linnius. Only Bernaccia and Deywr seemed to have peaceful Angles on their coastlines.
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Twenty five years after the start of the Anglo-Saxon Conquest, the North remained untouched and still relatively powerful. Angles hired as mercenaries(laeti) continued to help defend the eastern coastline.
The Lindisware (Linnius) Angles appear to have managed a peaceful transition of power. They took on many aspects of sub-Roman administration and lived isolated from the action in the south.
Although the country was in a state of flux, this was the time of Ambrosius Aurelianus, and Arthur too. Together, or in sequence, they organised the much-needed defence of the south: groups of Angles were rapidly colonising Caer Went and penetrating Caer Lerion; the Cantware Jutes conquered Kent by 488; Ælle's Saxons made swift progress on the south coast; and more Saxons had made deep inroads along the Thames Valley, carving out settlements there and threatening the entire West Country. Cynwidion quickly lost its western border to the Ciltern Saetan, while the territory of Lundein was swiftly occupied by the Middel Seaxe on either side of the Thames. Defence came in the form of the battle, or siege, of Mons Badonicus incirca 496.
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More than any other battle or siege, Mons Badonicus had a massive effect on the conquest. Probably led by Ælle, who was the recognised overlord of the invaders, the Saxons of the south had suffered a crushing defeat which seems to have critically weakened the Suth Seaxe, Middel Seaxe, Thames Valley Saxons, and perhaps even the Cantware.
A period of peace which lasted for over a generation followed the British victory. However, Cerdic and his supporters made a grab for power over the West Seaxe in 495-519. In addition, the Angles in the east continued to pour into the Midlands, quickly engulfing Caer Lerion and apparently forcing a passage through Cynwidion's western territory to link up with the Ciltern Saetan, probably shortly before Mons Badonicus. Caer Mincip, a small British enclave, survived on the edge of the (probably weakened) Middel Seaxe kingdom.
By the end of this period the peace was fading, and the first move seems to have been made by the Bernician Angles (British Bernaccia) in 547, situated North of the Humber. Nearby Rheged and The Pennines further sub-divided, while in the south Caer Colun came under attack.

Here you will see, the gradual conquest of what will become England, in a step by step description via Map.

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By AD 550, the long peace which had lasted since Mons Badonicus was all but over. Large inroads into British territory were being made by the West Seaxe. With the Wiltsaete pushing against their south-western border, and the West Seaxe forcing their way up from the south, the British stronghold of Caer Gwinntguic collapsed in 552, opening the whole of Salisbury Plain to the Saxons.
They made the most of it by sweeping round Caer Celemion, which continued to hold out, and began a takeover of the Saxons in the Thames Valley and Chilterns (from circa 571 onwards).
British Cynwidion continued to hold out, although its territory was much reduced by the Middil Engle making large inroads from the Midlands.
In the Midlands, the Iclingas were just beginning to absorb Angle neighbours to their immediate east and south. The large territory of Powys was divided in two from circa 570, with the eastern half becoming Pengwern.
In Ebrauc, Angles staged a takeover of the region of Deira (British Deywr). Ebrauc found itself under siege from two sides, and lost ground between circa570-580.
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At the same time as the East Engle were being united under a single king, Angle and Saxon conquests during this period were rapid and extensive.
The West Seaxe defeated three British kings in 577, destroying Caer Baddan, Caer Ceri and Caer Gloui. The Hwicce moved into the territory to form their own kingdom while the West Seaxe continued to fight against Dumnonia.
That catastrophic British defeat meant that both Dumnonia and Caer Celemion were now totally isolated, while the nearby East Seaxe consolidated their own kingdom.
North of the Humber, the two Angle kingdoms were also making rapid advances. Ebrauc's defence finally ran out of steam in circa 580, by which time it was overrun by the Deiran Angles. The Bernician Angles conquered Dunoting in 595, and appear to have destroyed The Peak at around the same time. Saxon groups moved in from the Midlands to adopt the name, becoming the Pecset.
Elmet was now surrounded by enemies but North Rheged was at the height of its strength, even controlling nearby Galwyddel, until in-fighting brought down its powerful leader.
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After that catastrophe, both North and South Rheged fell quickly. Only a small North Rhegedian enclave may have survived, against Caer-Guendoleu's border and probably around Carlisle. That pocket kingdom itself was absorbed by Alt Clut, while control of Galwyddel returned to the Britons on Ynys Manau.
This was a period of Anglo-Saxon consolidation. The Bernician and Deiran Angles secured the west coast, and destroyed Elmet and the Gododdin.

The Iclingas were swiftly taking over all the Middil Engle settlements in the Midlands. They became known as the Mercians - March, or border kingdom - between 584-600. By circa 630 they were masters of the East Midlands.

The East Seaxe were gaining overlordship of the Middel Seaxe and the region of theirs which lay south of the Thames, Suther-ge.

The Pecset were settling the Peak District, and the Hwicce seem to have been merging with the Britons within their new territory. The West Seaxe finally destroyed Caer Celemion, as well as expanding a little further westwards.


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  • 2

10489833_664318090328376_188312911168407

 

æsctír here sum ándaga wulfséaþas brecðan scildweallas

 

Lo  þær drohtoþ ic lóc min fæder, Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc min módor, ond min gesweostor ond min gebródor. Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc séo lang of min Angelfolc. Lo hig drohtoþ gecégan æt mé ond bid mé bryidan min bæcern ámang  þæge rice wiusæl of valhalla bæcern þæt mðdhwæt magan búan widan.

 

E.L.A.M.O

 

 


#7 Teutoburg Weald

Teutoburg Weald

    Until Valhalla & my Kindred call!

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Posted 04 December 2011 - 03:33 PM

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By AD 550, the long peace which had lasted since Mons Badonicus was all but over. Large inroads into British territory were being made by the West Seaxe. With the Wiltsaete pushing against their south-western border, and the West Seaxe forcing their way up from the south, the British stronghold of Caer Gwinntguic collapsed in 552, opening the whole of Salisbury Plain to the Saxons.
They made the most of it by sweeping round Caer Celemion, which continued to hold out, and began a takeover of the Saxons in the Thames Valley and Chilterns (from circa 571 onwards).
British Cynwidion continued to hold out, although its territory was much reduced by the Middil Engle making large inroads from the Midlands.
In the Midlands, the Iclingas were just beginning to absorb Angle neighbours to their immediate east and south. The large territory of Powys was divided in two from circa 570, with the eastern half becoming Pengwern.
In Ebrauc, Angles staged a takeover of the region of Deira (British Deywr). Ebrauc found itself under siege from two sides, and lost ground between circa570-580.
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At the same time as the East Engle were being united under a single king, Angle and Saxon conquests during this period were rapid and extensive.
The West Seaxe defeated three British kings in 577, destroying Caer Baddan, Caer Ceri and Caer Gloui. The Hwicce moved into the territory to form their own kingdom while the West Seaxe continued to fight against Dumnonia.
That catastrophic British defeat meant that both Dumnonia and Caer Celemion were now totally isolated, while the nearby East Seaxe consolidated their own kingdom.
North of the Humber, the two Angle kingdoms were also making rapid advances. Ebrauc's defence finally ran out of steam in circa 580, by which time it was overrun by the Deiran Angles. The Bernician Angles conquered Dunoting in 595, and appear to have destroyed The Peak at around the same time. Saxon groups moved in from the Midlands to adopt the name, becoming the Pecset.
Elmet was now surrounded by enemies but North Rheged was at the height of its strength, even controlling nearby Galwyddel, until in-fighting brought down its powerful leader.
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After that catastrophe, both North and South Rheged fell quickly. Only a small North Rhegedian enclave may have survived, against Caer-Guendoleu's border and probably around Carlisle. That pocket kingdom itself was absorbed by Alt Clut, while control of Galwyddel returned to the Britons on Ynys Manau.
This was a period of Anglo-Saxon consolidation. The Bernician and Deiran Angles secured the west coast, and destroyed Elmet and the Gododdin.
The Iclingas were swiftly taking over all the Middil Engle settlements in the Midlands. They became known as the Mercians - March, or border kingdom - between 584-600. By circa 630 they were masters of the East Midlands.
The East Seaxe were gaining overlordship of the Middel Seaxe and the region of theirs which lay south of the Thames, Suther-ge.
The Pecset were settling the Peak District, and the Hwicce seem to have been merging with the Britons within their new territory. The West Seaxe finally destroyed Caer Celemion, as well as expanding a little further westwards.

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Not content with their destruction of the British enclave within their kingdom, the West Seaxe spent the next fifty years wholeheartedly attacking Dumnonia.
Major victories were claimed in 652 and 658, at which time Saxon groups pushed westwards, creating new settlements, taking over some old ones, and anglicising the local names. The Dormsaete settled in the former Ancient British tribal canton of the Durotriges, while the Somersaete became their northern neighbours, secure in their territory of woods, marshes and hills once Glastenning had fallen. The Defnas (Devon) Britons were conquered in 681-685, and the West Seaxe gradually took direct control of all these areas, bottling up Dumnonia in what is now Cornwall. The West Seaxe also took the Suther-ge region, but lost the Ciltern Saxons to Mercia.

Mercia itself was busy fighting the mighty Northumbria at this time, which itself managed to lose territory to the Picts in 685. Teaming up with Pengwern, Mercia laid claim to Elmet, but eventual defeats saw Pengwern destroyed and Saxon groups moved in to claim its territory, with Mercia gaining overall control by 700.



  • 2

10489833_664318090328376_188312911168407

 

æsctír here sum ándaga wulfséaþas brecðan scildweallas

 

Lo  þær drohtoþ ic lóc min fæder, Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc min módor, ond min gesweostor ond min gebródor. Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc séo lang of min Angelfolc. Lo hig drohtoþ gecégan æt mé ond bid mé bryidan min bæcern ámang  þæge rice wiusæl of valhalla bæcern þæt mðdhwæt magan búan widan.

 

E.L.A.M.O

 

 


#8 Teutoburg Weald

Teutoburg Weald

    Until Valhalla & my Kindred call!

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Posted 04 December 2011 - 03:40 PM

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With the fall of the last sub-Roman territories within what was becoming England, the period of conquest was over.
The remaining unconquered kingdoms in the west (an area which was becoming known as Wales) were only just beginning the hesitant process of unification, and could offer little real threat other than that of raiding across the border.
Mercia had secured the east and west Midlands. It was now free to push in the borders of Powys, and had recently taken Cambridge from the East Engle. The Hwicce and Lindisware were also increasingly coming under their control.
Northumbria had apparently lost some of the former territory of Elmet to the Mercians, and had formed an administrative sub-kingdom in Dunbar (true borders unknown), but they were still the major power in the nine surviving Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.
The West Seaxe now dominated the south coast and West Country. The Suth Seaxe were under their domination, and Dumnonia was a shadow of its former self, never again to pose any threat to its neighbours.


Anglo-Saxon Britain

England and Wales AD 900-950


By the dawn of the tenth century the period of invasion and conquest by the Vikings, mostly originating from Denmark or Viking Dublin, had ended.


The Viking conquest of the kingdom of Northumbria had resulted in the fragmentation of the territory north of the Humber. By 875 the invaders had grabbed former Deira, Elmet and Dunoting, plus areas of what had been South Rheged. Former Bernicia regained its independence by the early tenth century as an English sub-kingdom, while Cumbria (which had been part of Northumbria since the fall of North Rheged) fell into the hands of Strathclyde around the turn of the century.



While the history of Lancashire at this point is extremely misty, the Danelaw was retaken by Wessex in 918, which had also controlled Mercia since 879, but the Vikings managed to hold onto Ynys Manau (the Isle of Man) until 1265.



Wales was taking large steps towards the consolidation of its many small kingdoms. All of them, along with Dumnonia and the Scots and Picts, were tributary to the English kings at this time.



The Scandinavian kingdom of York itself finally fell to the English in 954, creating a fully unified English kingdom.



Although not strictly relevant here, the Scottish crown captured Dunbar in circa 975, bringing the island one step closer to its modern borders


To select a kingdom for further information, click anywhere within its borders.

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Here is England from the 900's onwards, including Wales and the Dane law.

HG

More to come in time....

  • 2

10489833_664318090328376_188312911168407

 

æsctír here sum ándaga wulfséaþas brecðan scildweallas

 

Lo  þær drohtoþ ic lóc min fæder, Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc min módor, ond min gesweostor ond min gebródor. Lo þær drohtoþ ic lóc séo lang of min Angelfolc. Lo hig drohtoþ gecégan æt mé ond bid mé bryidan min bæcern ámang  þæge rice wiusæl of valhalla bæcern þæt mðdhwæt magan búan widan.

 

E.L.A.M.O